schools were to be merged, Polish teachers dismissed, and the resulting savings used to sponsor the creation of schools for children of the German minority or to create barracks for German troops. 49 Also occasionally sponsored were secret art exhibitions, theater performances and concerts. 66 67 In the process, they banned political parties and public associations and imprisoned or executed their leaders as "enemies of the people". In November 1940, the Poles of Lwów observed the 85th anniversary of Adam Mickiewicz 's death. Retrieved on June 15, 2008 a b c Salmonowicz 1994,. . 56 The only officially available reading matter was the propaganda press that was disseminated by the German occupation administration. 96 It was perceived as a much more serious issue in the annexed territories, as it hindered the process of Germanization; involvement in the underground education in those territories was much more likely to result in a sentence to a concentration camp. 196 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 142148 a b c d e Madajczyk 1970,. . 7 10 He and Frank agreed that opportunities for the Poles to experience their culture should be severely restricted: no theaters, cinemas or cabarets; no access to radio or press; and no education. 5 By 1 October, Germany and the Soviet Union had completely overrun Poland, although the Polish government never formally surrendered, and the Polish Underground State, subordinate to the Polish government-in-exile, was soon formed. 38 Queen Bona's 16th century royal casket, looted and destroyed by the Germans in 1939 The Germans were especially active in the destruction of Jewish culture in Poland; nearly all of the wooden synagogues there were destroyed. Of twenty-thirty spacious school buildings which Kraków had before 1939, today the worst two buildings are used. 50 Mere possession of such books was illegal and punishable by imprisonment. The index of banned authors included such Polish authors as Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Bolesław Prus, Stefan Żeromski, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Władysław Reymont, Stanisław Wyspiański, Julian Tuwim, Kornel Makuszyński, Leopold Staff, Eliza Orzeszkowa and Maria Konopnicka. 6 Destruction of Polish culture edit German occupation edit Policy edit Germany's policy toward the Polish nation and its culture evolved during the course of the war.